How to Write Structure a Dissertation Introduction

PhD Dissertation Writing Services

 1. Stages of conducting scientific research: features and requirements. Genres and styles of scientific creativity. Methods of presentation of scientific research materials. Theses and arguments in scientific research.

Presentation of scientific research materials can be done in different ways. Directly, the research process can be described briefly, and its results are widely disclosed. Otherwise, the scientist can describe in detail the entire research process, the proposed hypotheses, their proof or refutation. The results of the scientific research are revealed later. 

How to Write Structure a Dissertation Introduction

Dissertation writing research materials can be deductive and inductive. In the first case, the research is directed from general theoretical provisions to the analysis of individual empirical cases, in the other case, vice versa. 

Dissertation materials can be submitted in the following ways: 

 clearly sequential, when the author elaborates the first section, after its complete completion moves to the second, then to the third, etc.; 

 integral, when a preliminary version of the dissertation is formed, and then its processing is carried out; 

 selective, when after collecting information, the dissertation materials are presented in any order. 

The search for the optimal form of submission of scientific work takes place at each stage of research. In the process of writing a dissertation, the applicant must clearly formulate each thesis, without deviating further from its initial formulation. 

The main mistakes when presenting theses in a scientific work are: 

 loss of thesis; 

 complete replacement of thesis; 

 partial replacement of the thesis. 

Theses presented in the dissertation must be well-argued. Argumentation is the process of justifying a certain statement in order to convince of its truth and expediency. Argumentation is based on the laws of logic. In order to find arguments, it is advisable for the author of the thesis to imagine an opponent who disagrees with his statement, and to find the appropriate amount of evidence that will fully convince of the validity of the thesis. In the text, arguments must be placed between the thesis and the conclusion. It is important that the arguments do not merge with the thesis. Arguments can be supported by examples. 

As a rule, each given argument is followed by a corresponding example. However, one of the options for their placement can be as follows: first all arguments are highlighted (as a rule, each from a new paragraph), and then examples are given. 

The general conclusion can be preceded by micro-conclusions placed after each argument. The arguments presented by the acquirer must be sufficient, reliable, autonomous and non-controversial, otherwise the thesis being proved will be questioned. 

When the goal is to refute the thesis of other scientists, this can be done by: 

 critics of the thesis, when its falsity is proven due to the falsity of its consequences; 

 criticism of arguments, when the falsity or dubiousness of the arguments of the thesis is proven, as a result of which the thesis will be refuted or require additional arguments; 

 criticism of the demonstration, when it is proved that there is no relationship between the thesis and the arguments.

2. Research hypothesis.

Proposing a hypothesis is an important element of dissertation research. A hypothesis is understood as a scientific assumption put forward to explain certain phenomena and processes or causes that cause them. A hypothesis allows you to give an explanation to phenomena and facts that have not yet been clarified, the existence of a certain natural connection between them, the causes of their occurrence, etc. The hypothesis provides the main idea of ​​the thesis. It defines the subject, goal, task of the research. 

The following stages of hypothesis construction and proof  are distinguished :

1) detection of a phenomenon that cannot be substantiated with the help of knowledge known to science (working hypothesis); collection of facts that would justify the probability of an assumption about the phenomenon, and their preliminary analysis and understanding through analogy, induction, deduction, etc.; 

2) formation of a hypothesis based on collected facts (scientific hypothesis); on the basis of the proposed scientific assumption, further research of the phenomenon takes place and the direction of the entire research is established; 

3) proof (development) of the hypothesis; is carried out by assuming that the hypothesis is true, as a result of which the consequences or facts that are the result of its existence are isolated by the deductive method; then such consequences and facts are verified in practice; depending on whether they correspond to reality or not, the hypothesis is considered correct or false; the probability of the hypothesis will be the higher, the more the consequences derived from this hypothesis will be established and verified; 

4) a conclusion about the truth or falsity of the proposed hypothesis. 

A hypothesis consistent with scientific facts is called a theory or a law . A hypothesis cannot be far-fetched, illogical or contradict the scientific facts and scientific theories within which it develops. In addition, the hypothesis must be consistent with the knowledge we know at the time of its proposal. 

Working and scientific hypotheses are distinguished . Forming a working hypothesis, the acquirer makes a temporary assumption that will later help to build this or that scientific hypothesis. To solve the task set in the dissertation research, several hypotheses can be singled out that justify the same phenomenon. In the future, one hypothesis is chosen. A working hypothesis allows you to check whether an explanation of a certain phenomenon, connection, etc., is possible. If, after putting forward a working hypothesis, it is established that it cannot be substantiated, such a hypothesis is rejected and replaced by another working hypothesis. Therefore, this type of hypothesis often undergoes changes in the process of dissertation research. It is refined, supplemented, completely transformed, discarded, etc. 

Having assessed the probability of phenomena and facts, the working hypothesis can turn into a scientific hypothesis during further research . The latter is often transformed into a complex system of knowledge. A scientific hypothesis explains the regularities of the development of the phenomena of nature and society. 

Hypothesis and thesis are not identical concepts. A hypothesis, unlike a thesis, is a system of judgments and inferences. In addition, a hypothesis is a plausible scientific assumption, but not reliable. The common feature of these two concepts is that they require justification and proof. 

The formula "knowledge - application of scientific methods - new knowledge" should be applied in the process of dissertation research . Research should contain a new solution to the task (in candidate theses) or problem (in doctoral theses). The hypothesis is actually regarded as a connecting link between existing knowledge and knowledge acquired as a result of research.

3. Features of writing and components of the introduction to the dissertation Writing.

The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine has determined the Requirements for the design of dissertations, which were approved by Order No. 40 dated January 12, 2017 (Appendix A). According to these requirements, the introduction provides a general description of the dissertation, namely: 

1) justification of the choice of the research topic . The relationship between the topic of the dissertation and modern research in the relevant field of knowledge is highlighted through critical analysisin defining the essence of a scientific problem or task. When opening this rubric, a list of scientists who studied issues related to the topic of research is indicated in alphabetical order. The works of the mentioned scientists must be highlighted in the list of used sources, otherwise the quality of the literature review and study of the researched problem is called into question. Among the scientists, there should be a leader, opponents, since they are chosen from the list of scientists who have dealt with these problems, individual members of the council in which the dissertation will be defended, which confirms the presence of experts on the topic of the dissertation in the specialized academic council. 

2) the purpose and task of the research . 

The goal should be formulated in such a way that the goal of the research and its result can be clearly traced. The formulation of research tasks should be specific and oriented towards results. Each task must find its own solution. The subject and object of the research are also indicated in this section. 

3) research methods . 

The used scientific methods of research are listed and it is meaningfully noted what exactly was studied by each method; the choice of methods ensuring the reliability of the obtained results and conclusions is substantiated. A correctly chosen research method will provide a well-founded research result. All methods are divided into general scientific and special. General scientific methods are of a general, universal nature, they include, in particular, the following methods: observation, comparison, analogy, modeling, measurement, experiment , abstraction , concretization , analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, historical method, survey, theoretical generalization, formalization, statistical (statistical summation, statistical grouping, correlation-regression analysis, construction of series of dynamics, index method), etc. Special methods are a set of methods of knowledge , research techniques used in one or another science. 

4) scientific novelty of the obtained results . 

In this column, the main scientific propositions that are put forward for defense are presented in an argumentative, concise and clear manner, with an indication of the difference between the obtained results and the previously known ones. The novelty is displayed under the following headings: for the first time; improved; acquired further development. Scientific novelty cannot be submitted in the form of an abstract, when only what is done in the dissertation is noted. 

The content of the provisions of scientific novelty should consistently answer the question: what has been done and what is the degree of its novelty? What is the novelty of the proposal? What gives the proposed? 

According to the level of acquired knowledge, the following levels of novelty are distinguished: a) new knowledge; b) fundamental change of known knowledge; c) expansion, addition of known knowledge; d) clarification, specification of known data, dissemination of known knowledge to new objects. 

5) personal contribution of the acquirer .

 If the dissertation uses ideas or developments belonging to co-authors, together with which the recipient has published scientific works, then the specific personal contribution of the recipient to such works or developments must be noted; the applicant must also add references to the dissertations of the co-authors in which the results of the joint work were used. 

6) approval of dissertation materials. 

The name of the conference, congress, symposium, seminar, school, place and date are indicated. 

7) structure and scope of the dissertation . 

The structure of the dissertation is announced, its total scope is indicated. To reveal the structure of the dissertation, it is necessary to provide information about the presence of an introduction, a certain number of sections, conclusions, a list of used sources, and appendices. In addition, it is necessary to indicate the volume of the main text of the dissertation in pages, as well as the volume occupied by figures, tables, appendices (with an indication of their number), a list of used sources (with an indication of the number of titles). 

If available, the following may also be indicated in the introduction: 

1) connection of work with scientific programs, plans, topics, grants . It is indicated within the framework of which programs, thematic plans, scientific topics and grants, in particular sectoral, state and/or international, the dissertation research was carried out, indicating the state registration numbers of scientific research works and the name of the organization where the work was carried out. This connection must be confirmed by relevant 30 certificates issued by research units (sectors, institutes) operating at higher educational institutions where the dissertation was performed) 

2) practical significance of the obtained results . Information on the use of research results or recommendations on their practical use are provided. Accordingly, documents confirming the practical use of the results obtained by the awardee - implementation in production, sufficient research and production verification, obtaining new quantitative and qualitative indicators, significant advantages of the proposed technologies, samples must be attached to the dissertation containing scientific and applied results. products, materials, etc., and for the dissertation containing theoretical scientific results - recommendations for their use.

4. Work on sections of the dissertation.

Each branch of knowledge and specialty has its own peculiarities of presentation of the dissertation sections. The content of the sections should clearly correspond to the topic of the dissertation and fully disclose it. 

According to the Requirements for writing dissertations and abstracts of dissertations, developed by the former Higher Attestation Commission of Ukraine, in the first section , the applicant, critically highlighting the scientific works of other scientists, outlines the main stages of the development of scientific thought on his problem and distinguishes those questions that remained unresolved. 

In this way, the acquirer determines his place in solving the task (problem). The total volume of the literature review should not exceed 20% of the volume of the main part of the dissertation. In the second chapter, the choice of the research direction is justified, the general methodology of the dissertation research is outlined, methods of problem solving and their comparative evaluations are given. The main trends, regularities, calculation methods, hypotheses under consideration, operating principles and characteristics of the used programs and/or hardware, laboratory and/or instrumental methods and techniques, assessment of measurement errors, etc. are described. 

The following sections describe the course of the research, the conditions and main stages of the experiments , the results of the acquirer's own research, how they were obtained, and what is their novelty are described in detail. The applicant must give an assessment of the completeness of the solution of the tasks, an assessment of the reliability of the obtained results (characteristics, parameters) and compare the obtained results with similar results of domestic and foreign researchers, justify the need for additional research. 

The division of the thesis sections into subsections, points and subsections should be carried out according to the logical rules of the distribution of the concept. Dissertation work should have internal unity . When working on a separate point of the plan, one should constantly see its connection with the investigated problem in general. And vice versa, when studying a broad problem - to be able to divide it into parts. Explanations of well-known provisions should be avoided. The applicant's opinion may change during the dissertation research process. 

Special attention should be paid to research terminology . The applied conceptual apparatus has a scientific basis. For this purpose, the definitions of concepts by various scientists should be analyzed and compared with those formulated in state standards, encyclopedias, and dictionaries. At the same time, it should be taken into account that each field of knowledge has its own scientific language. Terms and concepts in everyday language often do not correspond to their scientific interpretation. 

When writing the main text of the dissertation, one should strictly adhere to the topic and main principles, including brevity, literacy, argumentation. According to Clause 9 of the Procedure for Awarding Scientific Degrees, the dissertation is carried out in the field of science and in a scientific specialty according to the list approved by the Ministry of Education and Culture, and must correspond to the passport of the scientific specialty approved by the Ministry of Education and Science.

5. Conclusions to the dissertation and the relationship "task - scientific novelty - conclusions".

The research process must end in the form of a specific scientific result, in particular conclusions. 

Several types of conclusions are distinguished in the dissertation : 

1) each subsection should end with a summary that characterizes the results presented in this subsection and indicates the next steps of the research;

 2) conclusions are formed at the end of each section, which makes it possible to free general conclusions from secondary information. At the same time, the final generalizations of each subdivision within the section are taken into account. In the conclusions to the sections, the numbers of the acquirer's publications are given in the list of used sources, in which he published the relevant scientific results described in the section; 

3) general conclusions, which are reflected in the logic of their disclosure in the dissertation and must correspond to the set goal. 

In accordance with the Requirements for the preparation of the dissertation, approved by the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine dated January 12, 2017 No. 40: 

1. The conclusions state the most important scientific and practical results of the dissertation, indicate scientific problems for the solution of which the results of the research can be applied, as well as possible directions for continuing research on the subject of the dissertation. 

2. In the presence of practical significance of the obtained results, information on the use of research results or recommendations on their use are provided. If the research results are implemented, the information is provided with the names of the organizations in which the implementation was carried out. 

General conclusions are made up of concise information about the results of the work performed. They begin with the formulation of a scientific problem, for the solution of which the dissertation student claims to be awarded a scientific degree. 

General conclusions should begin as follows: "The dissertation provides a theoretical generalization and offers a new solution to the scientific task (scientific problem), which consists in...". This sentence should be closely related to the title, the purpose of the dissertation research, and the main scientific propositions being defended. 

After formulating the solved scientific problem, the main scientific and practical results of the work are presented in the conclusions. They should be closely related to the scientific and applied provisions outlined in the general characteristics of the work. 

Each scientific and applied conclusion of the work must be formulated clearly and concretely (unequivocally). Conclusions must be author's , there can be no citation . The style of writing conclusions is different from the style of novelty. 

The conclusion is a brief overview of the results obtained in the process of dissertation research. Conclusions should not use the words "proposed", "proved", "disclosed", "improved", etc., which are inherent in novelties and annotations. Here it is necessary to clearly formulate the result as an obvious fact: investment is...; financial investments must be divided according to such and such criteria, etc. 

Each point of conclusions is numbered . The number of conclusions should not be less than the number of tasks. The total volume of conclusions should be within 3.5-4.5 pages (2-3 pages of the abstract). 

The task of the research and the general conclusions should be consistent with each other as much as possible , and not quantitatively, but substantively. Each of the set tasks must find its own solution, confirmed by a corresponding specific scientific conclusion. Similarly, the scientific novelty of the obtained results should correspond to the set tasks. Thus, a logical relationship should be followed in the dissertation: the solution to the task should be reflected in the scientific novelty and disclosed in the conclusions .